Letters, References and Notes (1830-1838) 
Relating to James Caldwell and Anne Marsh (Marsh-Caldwell)

The following is a listing of letters, references and general notes, from 1831-1838, relating to James Caldwell, his daughter Anne Marsh (nee Caldwell) and her husband Arthur Marsh .  For notes relating to other years please go to Letters, References and Notes (1780-1874).


Printed note about the railways addressed to Parliment.  It has Peter Holland's name on the outside but it does not say who wrote it.  Probably dates to the early 1830s. 

P Holland Esq.


Addressed to the Members of both Houses of Parliament.

During the Session of Parliament, which is now in progress, the Legislature will be called upon to sanction numerous Bills for the construction of Railways in various parts of the Kingdom, the aggregate length of which will amount to many hundred miles, and which will require the appropriation of several millions of capital. But before the Acts, giving the necessary powers for that purpose, are granted, it may be well that the Members of both Houses of Parliament should bestow their attention on a few considerations, derived not from scientific principles, but from the exercise of the plain COMMON SENSE, which applies the lessons of experience to the regulation of conduct in the ordinary affairs of life. These considerations are directed chiefly to the question, whether it be expedient, in the present state of our knowledge of Railways, to urge their construction with the precipitancy, and to the extent, which are contended for by the advocates of this new mode of communication? It is the object of these few pages to examine the question with impartiality, and with all the brevity that is consistent with a perspicuous view of the argument.

The employment of Railways, which had been long in use at the principal iron and coal-works in Great Britain , was first recommended for general adoption about the year 1821. their fitness, or unfitness, for this more extensive purpose, soon became a matter of public discussion; and various, and even opposite, opinions were advanced by engineers of the greatest eminence. It was not till the year 1824, that the construction of a Railway for general use was determined to be carried into effect between Liverpool and Manchester . The line, selected for the experiment, was the most favourable to success that could possibly have been chosen, both on account of the level nature of the ground, and of the vast amount of carriage between its extreme points. The work was conducted with great spirit and perseverance; and, in September, 1835?, the road was sufficiently advanced to be opened for use.

During the time when the Railway was constructing, the public opinion gradually acquired a bias, and at length a decided direction, in favour of this new mode of communication. But the spirit of enthusiasm was excited to the highest pitch, by the display which took place on the memorable day of its being first opened. With a justifiable desire to render that event as impressive as possible, the Directors gave to it all the accompaniments of pomp and circumstance, which could accrue from splendid trains of carriages, and from the presence of persons, distinguished for rank, station, and talents. With on melancholy exception, not imputable to any defect of their arrangements, the proceedings of the day were well adapted to astonish and delight the vast assemblages of people gathered from a widely extended district of the surrounding country, and from the most distant parts of the Kingdom. No one, whatever might be his own peculiar interests, could witness this great triumph of industry and skill, (by which a power of terrific force was subdued to the most easy government, and so directed as to give to inert matter the semblance of intelligence, and an efficacy of strength, and velocity of movement, surpassing those of the most perfect animals,) without the warmest admiration; and even without an honest pride, in belonging to the age and country in which such inventions had their origin.

But it is of the nature of enthusiasm not to stop at that due point, within which it is a wholesome principle of action, and an incitement to needful and vigorous exertion. Too often it transgresses those sober boundaries, and becomes the source of illusions, which, by their extent and extravagance, inflict the most serious evils upon the community. This is precisely what has happened with respect to the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Because much has been done to prove the safety and advantages of Railway under certain circumstance, it has been rashly concluded that every thing has been accomplished, which was necessary to demonstrate the universal preference due to Railways over the established modes of communication. Because a Railway over a tolerably level ground, and between two of the most populous towns in the Kingdom, promises to answer its purpose where speed is required, it has been proposed, gravely and in earnest, to carry railways over the tops of mountains, at an elevation of more than 1,000 feet above the sea-level, and even to penetrate the bases of those mountains by inclined tunnels more than three miles in length. Schemes of Railways, which had been abandoned as impracticable or hopeless of profit, have, from the supposed brilliant success of the Liverpool Railway, been revived under the same or other shapes. And nearly the whole island has been marked out by lines of Railways, for which proposals have been issued ascertain sources of wealth to the contributors, and of unbounded advantages to commerce. To these projects, a great part of the Public has lent a willing ear, seduced by the bold and confident pretensions of the persons with whom they originated, many of whom are sure to benefit immediately and considerably, whatever ruin may be entailed on the subscribers at large. Deposits on the shares have been paid, with the intention, the moment the Acts shall be obtained, of securing a profit, by persons who will be reduced to great distress if, from inability to transfer their shares, they should be rendered liable to the usual calls for the periodical advances of capital.

And what is the foundation of all these wild and extravagant speculations? Nothing more (if may safely be answered) than EXPERIMENT, which is still in actual progress; of which the result yet remains to be ascertained; and which, from its nature, cannot be completed for a considerable time yet to come. What hope and encouragement for the future may arise out of the trial of the Liverpool Railway, now going on, especially as respects the consistency of speed with safety, it cannot be pretended that sufficient proof has yet been given of the main point, required to establish the superiority of Railways over canals, viz., their GREATER ECONOMY. Of this, the reduction in the tonnage of raw cotton, in which the Railway has been followed by the water-carriers, is no proof; because the rate now charged, within one shilling per ton, was fixed by the Railway Act, at a time when the cost of its conveyance could only have been approximated by an estimate. Unless, however, the cardinal point of greater economy can be clearly made out, the advantages of the Railway will be limited (as is still the opinion of many of the best judges) to those cases, in which an extra-price can be afforded, for the rapid conveyance of passengers, and of those lighter articles of merchandize which are required to supply immediate demands. The proof which is required must consist, not in ESTIMATES OF CALCULATIONS; for of the fallaciousness of these we have already had sufficient experience in the case of the Liverpool Railway, the cost of which (upwards of £30,000 per mile) is more than double the estimate; but in bona fide evidence, to be derived, at a fit season, from a fair winding-up of the accounts of the concern; from a balance sheet, proving that after paying interest on the sunk capital, and defraying the current expenses, there will be a surplus of actual profit, however moderate, to be divided among the Proprietors. Such an investigation, it is obvious, cannot be completely finished; that the sufficiency of the work should be ascertained by longer experience; that the solidity of the foundation, the durability of the road and embankments, should be fairly tried; that the wear and tear of the rails, carriages, and machinery, should be determined, both under the present system of exclusive use by the Company of Proprietors, and when thrown open, as is proposed, to carriers in general. These, and variety of other data, hitherto unknown, must be acquired by actual experience, before it can be pronounced, with just confidence, that Railways can carry at a cheaper rate than Canals. They are points upon which Directors and Engineers can at present offer nothing but random conjectures, quite unworthy of being made the ground of undertakings, which will absorb many millions of the capital of the nation.


It has been said that Parliament has nothing to do with the success or failure of the Liverpool Railway; and that it has only to grant the necessary powers to those who choose to take the risk of similar undertakings, without regard to the loss or ruin which may befall either the adventurers themselves, or any other persons. But it must be remembered that over all great works, such as canals and railroads, necessarily affecting a great variety of interests, the Legislature already exercises a superintending vigilance and control; and that it protects individuals and the public from those injuries, which, in the eager pursuit of their object, speculators are too apt to overlook. Even the Cottager cannot be deprived of his house or garden for the public good, without giving him an opportunity of expressing his dissent, and without full reparation for the loss he may sustain. It would be a solecism, then, to content that while the Legislature guards these less important rights, it should neglect the great and momentous interests of those, who have already embarked large capitals in establishing modes of communication, which it is the object and the boast of the projectors of Railways to supersede and even to annihilate. The Proprietors of the existing channels conceive, therefore, that the great principles of NATURAL JUSTICE give them a claim to expect that they shall not be subjected to grievous injury without full and sufficient cause. All they demand is a calm and dispassionate consideration of their case. They protest against being sacrificed, under an excited state of the popular feeling, to a widely-spread and mischievous illusion, which has deprived great numbers of persons, of all capacity for calm and sober reflection on this one subject. They deprecate the reckless multiplication of rival modes of communication, many of them running parallel with and closely contiguous to their own, which cannot benefit the adventurers, and will infallibly and deeply injure the existing works; because, when once constructed, the new works must seek tonnages, even at prices which will not pay interest on the first cost.

But while the Proprietors of canals urge their claim on the protection of Parliament, they disavow, most decidedly and unequivocally, the selfish view of sacrificing the welfare of the community to their own exclusive interests. They are not disposed to throw any obstacles into the way of solid substantial improvements, when sanctioned by adequate experience. They know that such improvements must, sooner or later, be carried into effect, in spite of any efforts, which they might be weak enough to oppose to them. They claim only such deliberation and delay, as may give time for the award of sober and cautious experience; and they will be satisfied to abide by the result, when once unquestionably established, even though it may be attended with important sacrifices on their parts.

It has been argued that whatever injury may be sustained by individuals, or by companies, from competition with each other, the Public is always benefited by such competition; and that the true policy of Parliament consists in giving every encouragement to rival undertakings. But this is not true without some limitations. When a large capital has been embarked, under the authority of Parliament, in any great work, the contributors of that capital have a right to expect that the powers and privileges, which enabled them to perform the work, shall not be virtually annulled, by the sanction of Parliament lightly given to rival companies. Of the capital embarked in canals, a great proportion (amounting in some cases, to several hundred thousand pounds) has been borrowed on the security of the tonnages, and not having been paid back, the Creditors of those undertakings, as well as the Proprietors, have a deep stake in their continuance. Public highways are in the same predicament. Their tolls are pledged for borrowed monies, and, if seized by the creditors, funds may be wanting to keep the roads in repair; and the burthen of maintaining them will, in that case, be thrown upon the Landowners or Parishes. It must be remembered also that the capital invested in the established modes of communication, is –at and inalienable; that it cannot be withdrawn and applied to other objects; but, in as far as it is rendered unproductive, will be utterly annihilated. Now on the long run, no advantage can be derived to the Public from the destruction of capital; and it is a short sighted policy which, for the sake of temporary benefit, would encourage the expenditure of millions, to effect what has already been accomplished (it may be less perfectly) at immense cost. The advantage, to be gained by the Public, should not only be clear and unequivocal, but they should be of sufficient amount to outweigh, very decidedly, the injury threatened to existing concerns.

Again, it has been urged that Parliament should interfere as little as possible with the direction of capital, a principle, generally speaking, perfectly sound and legitimate. But it is surely not inconsistent with that principle, that, by caution in granting those Bills only, for which unquestionable claims can be shewn, the Legislature, without making it a direct object, should stem the torrent of capital from rushing too violently into one channel. Time has been found, by painful experience, to be an important element in the reasonings and calculations of the Political Economist. All sudden and violent changes, in the direction of the capital and industry of a nation, have been experienced to bring with them great mischiefs; while their slower and more gradual diversion into other channels gives room for that wholesome accommodation to altering circumstances, which disarms innovation of its evils, and purifies it from all deleterious alloy.

Other arguments might be urged in favour of the calm, and cautious, and the restrained use of the power, vested in the Legislature, of granting its sanction to the numerous projects for Railroads, which will be submitted to it during the present Session. But it is deemed better to leave the statement of these arguments incomplete, tan to trespass, more than is necessary, upon the attention of Members of Parliament, called, as it now is, to those great questions, which involve the welfare and security of the whole nation, and even of the whole of civilized Europe.

X the following impressive caution against rash speculations of this kind, is given in a publication entitled “An Account of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway ,by H.Booth, Esq., Treasurer of the Company.”

“The Liverpool and Manchester Railway is a magnificent work; but it will be useful to keep in mind that such works cannot be executed, except at an expense of no ordinary magnitude. This railway will cost above £800,000, including the charge for stations and depots at each end, and machinery, engines, wagons, &c. for a  carrying department. The immense traffic between Liverpool and Manchester amply justifies this outlay. But with reference to any similar scheme in extension of the Railway system, it is desirable the projectors should impartially calculate the cost of the work, as well as the income it may be expected to produce; and especially that they should make an ample allowance beyond the first estimate of the expenditure, before they embark in the undertaking.” – page 46.

XX “Effects of the Railway on the Turnpike Tolls. An attempt was made, a few days ago, to let the Tolls, arising at two Bars, on this end of the turnpike-road from Manchester to Liverpool; but such is the reduction, experience or anticipated in their produce, that the Trustees did not succeed in letting them, though offered at an enormous reduction of rent. The Eccles Bar and Side Bar, which, in 1829,were let for £1575 and in 1830 for £1700,were offered at 800;and the Irlam Bar, which in 1829 produced rent of £1335 and in 1830 of £1300, was offered at £500,but there was not a single bidding for either of them.” – Manchester Courier.



Note relating to Canals and Railways presumably written by James Caldwell.  Date not known

It is submitted-

That very large sums have been expended in the making and keeping up of Canals, upon the entire faith that Parliament would give a reasonable protection to such vested interests as is afforded in other cases.

That the Canal Proprietors, however, do not ask for compensation for injuries which they may sustain by any lines of opposing Railways; but only that they may be allowed, and not, by Act of Parliament, be precluded from, fair competition.

That, in the Railway Consolidation Bill, which has passed the House of Commons, a clause had been carried [by a majority of two only, in the House as to numbers – 21 to 19], enabling the Railway Proprietors to lower their tolls upon particular parts of their lines, without doing so upon the whole length.

That the effect of this will be most highly prejudicial to, if not destructive of Canals, inasmuch as, wherever a line of opposition exists from a Canal, the Railway Companies will be able to carry at any low – even nominal – rate they please, on that part of their line, making up the deficit of income, which must arise, by an increased toll on passengers.

That, as was well observed by Mr. J. Stuart Wortley,* such Clause, he believed, if carried, would “annihilate Canals altogether, and that he could not call that a fair competition, where Railways, in order to compete with Canals, carried goods for next to nothing, and put in on the passengers.”

That the consequence of this annihilation of Canals will be the establishment of a complete monopoly on the part of the Railways, the Proprietors of which will, after all competition has ceased, be at liberty to raise their tolls to any extent they chose.

That hereby the interests of the public at large will be most materially injured.

That, to a certain extent, the evil may be lessened, if not averted, by compelling the Railway Proprietors to charge the same upon the whole as upon parts of their lines; and by adopting the principle of a maximum, preventing tolls, after having been once lowered, from being raised again beyond a certain extent.

That Canal Proprietors are not allowed to charge beyond a certain rate per mile; and there are many cases where, although most important and expensive improvements have been made, they have not been able, even temporarily, to raise their tolls, to meet the particular emergency.**

That the objections made by some Honorable Members, that Mr. Rice’s Amendment would interfere with Sunday excursions and passengers for short distances, may be most easily obviated, by allowing less to be charged for passengers on parts of, than upon the whole line.

That if the Railway Consolidation Bill pass, in its present form, the Public, eventually in the case of goods, as they literally now are in the case of passengers, will be most materially prejudiced, by being obliged to pay more for the transit of goods than the Canals can well afford to carry them for.

That, so far as increased speed is concerned, this, for the general traffic of the country, and except in particular cases, will be of little value; the main thing for the commercial interests being – the regular conveyance of goods at cheap rates.

That, if the Bill alluded to receive the sanction of the Legislature, in its present form, the almost certain consequence will be immense loss to very many individuals, whose fortunes are largely interested in Canals, and to many small Proprietors inevitable ruin, where family arrangements have been made in the full faith that protection would be afforded and sustained by Parliament, where Parliament had expressly sanctioned the original undertakings.

That these observations are made in no unfriendly spirit towards Railways, generally, [very many Canal Proprietors – the writer of this letter for one – having considerable stakes in Railway investments,] but with a strong feeling that the Canal Companies are quite entitled to be allowed fair competition, and fair play.

A Canal Proprietor

*See Report of the Debate in Committee in the Times Newspapers.

**Some years ago the Trent and Mersey Company expended £123,868 in making a new Tunnel, &c.




No date but probably early 1830s.  Document summarising the situation regarding the Marriage Settlement of Arthur Cuthbert Marsh and his wife Anne Marsh (Marsh-Caldwell nee Caldwell), after the bankruptcy of William Marsh.  This document is not dated but was probably prepared for Josiah Wedgwood in the early 1830s, (certainly after 1828).  The document reads as follows:


In the year 1816 Arthur Marsh possessed a freehold and copyhold estate at Hendon.  The same year William Marsh the father of Arthur Marsh borrowed £25,000  3 per cent consols of James Wheeler, the repayment of which was secured by William Marsh's bond, as a further security Arthur Marsh as surety for his father agreed to execute to James Wheeler a mortgage of the estate of Hendon.  This mortgage was accordingly carried into effect by indentures of Lease and Release dated the 16th and 18th of March 1816 which contained a proviso for redemption of the premises upon reinvestment of the sum of £25,000 in the name of the said James Wheeler and payment of the dividends to him in the meantime.  In order to indemnify Arthur Marsh against the consequences of this mortgage a deed of assignment was executed dated the 15th of June 1816 and made between William Marsh of the one part, and Arthur Marsh of the other part, by which for the purpose of such indemnity William Marsh conveyed to Arthur Marsh certain leasehold and other property, consisting of a reversionary interest in certain leasehold premises in Sloane Square, Chelsea, and two leasehold houses in Norfolk Street, Strand, a leasehold messe at Knightsbridge, a piece of leasehold land at Knightsbridge, the lease of the Rectory and Tithes of the parish of Shorne in Kent subject to a mortgage of the said premises at Knightsbridge and Shorne for securing the payment of £3,810 East India Stock and the dividends thereof.  A share in the Westminster Life Insurance Office subject to a prior mortgage of £1,800, Five shares in the Plymouth Dock Waterworks, a reversionary interest in 3/8th shares of the sum of £4,000 £4 per cent expected on the death of Catherine Plank, Ten shares in the Bristol Fire Office, A policy of assurance of £900 on the life of John Shilling in the Equitable Insurance Office and also a sum of £1260 secured by the bond of Warrant of Attorney of the said John Shilling, A sum of £3,666  13 consols subject to certain charge there on, And so to all the promised hereinbefore mentioned subject to a proviso for redemption of the same by the said William Marsh if he should pay the said sum of £25,000 consols with the dividends thereof to the said James Wheeler and should keep indemnified the said Arthur Marsh and the estate comprised in the said mortgage from the transfer of the said sum of £25,000 consols and the dividends thereof and all costs and expenses subsequent thereupon.  And after the estate of Arthur Marsh in mortgage to the said James Wheeler should be reconveyed to the said Arthur Marsh discharged from the said mortgage and all other encumbrances the said Arthur Marsh should reassign to the said William Marsh and his assignees the several heredits and premises included in the now reciting deed of indemnity.  And William Marsh covenanted with Arthur Marsh that in case default should be made in such transfer  payment and indemnity as aforesaid it should be lawful for Arthur Marsh to hold the premises therefore assigned to enable him to pay the dividends of the said sum of £25,000 consols or so much as should be due and to call on the money due upon the several securities hereinbefore mentioned and after paying the dividends of the £25,000 consols to invest the residue in the name of the said James Wheeler in like consols in part or full satisfaction as the case might be of the £25,000 consols so as to exonerate the estate of Arthur Marsh from the said mortgage to James Wheeler. 

By another deed of assignment dated the 3rd July 1816 William Marsh as an additional security to Arthur Marsh assigned to him a mortgage for the sum of £2,726 and interest upon an estate of Sir B . . . Hollowell at Ealing subject to redemption upon the investment of the mortgage money in 3 per cent consols to be applied in part satisfaction of the said sum of £25,000 3 per cent consols due to James Wheeler.

In the year 1817 Arthur Marsh married Anne Caldwell and previous to the marriage by Lease and Release dated the 27th and 28th of July 1817.  The release being made between James Caldwell of the 1st part, William Marsh of the 2nd part, Arthur Marsh and Anne Caldwell of the 4th part and Josiah Wedgwood and George Pigott of the 5th part Arthur Marsh conveyed the estate at Hendon in mortgage to James Wheeler to Josiah Wedgwood and James Pigott, To hold the same to the use of the said Josiah Wedgwood and George Pigott and their heirs subject to the said mortgage Upon certain trusts there in mentioned for the benefit of the said Anne Caldwell and her children by the said Arthur Marsh.

And it was thereby provided that the Trustees for the time being should be chargeable only with such money as they should actually receive by the virtue of the Trusts and powers therein contained And that anyone or more of them should not be answerable for the others of them or for acts receipts neglects or defaults of the others of them but each of them for his own acts receipts neglects or defaults only And that the Trustees should not be answerable for any Banker Broker or other person with whom any part of the Trust moneys might be deposited for safe custody or otherwise in execution of any of the aforesaid Trusts.  Neither should they be answerable for the insufficiency of any security or funds upon which any part of the Trust Moneys should be invested Nor for any other Misfortune Loss or Damage which might happen in any of the Trusts therein contained or in relation there to unless the same should happen through their own wilful default respectively.

By another indenture dated 20th July 1817 being a further settlement previous to the marriage of the said Arthur Marsh with Anne Caldwell and made between the same parties with the exception of the said James Caldwell  He the said Arthur Marsh in order to protect the estate at Hendon from the mortgage to James Wheeler assigned to the said Josiah Wedgwood and George Pigott the Ldts and premises comprised in the two deeds of indemnity here in before mentioned subject to such Equity of Redemption in the same premises were liable to under the same indenture and subject to a further proviso for redemption and reassignment of the said premises in case William Marsh should transfer into the name of James Wheeler the sum of £25,000 consols and in the meantime pay him the amount of the dividends thereof and should also keep indemnified Josiah Wedgwood and George Pigott from the said mortgage to James Wheeler And in case the said William Marsh should make default in such transfer of payment It was provided that it should be lawful for the said Josiah Wedgwood and George Pigott to hold or sell and dispose of or call in the whole of the heredits and premises comprised in the aforesaid deeds of indemnity to enable them to pay the said sum of £25,000 consols and the dividends thereof or so much thereof that should be done so as to exhonerate the estate at Hendon from the mortgage to the said James Wheeler.

The marriage took place shortly after the execution of these settlements and there are now issue 7 Children.

In the month of September 1824 William Marsh and his partners became bankrupt.

Previous to the issuing of the commission against them the mortgage money due from Sir Beng Hollowell mentioned in the deed of indemnity was paid in and invested in the purchase of £3,000 consols in the name of James Wheeler in reduction of his mortgage.

After the issuing of the commission James Wheeler the mortgagee brought an action of ejectment and recovered possession of the estate at Hendon and obtained a degree of foreclosure in the Court of Chancery.  By the master's report in this suit it appeared that there was owing to James Wheeler £22,000 3 per cent consols and £1210 for interest expenses and costs on the 10th October 1827.

After the foreclosure of the estate at Hendon Josiah . . . 


The above is the first 5 pages of a 9 page document.  Note that "George Edward Graham Foster Pigott" of Bryanston Square, Middlesex, had previously gone by the name of "George Edward Graham".



26 Feb 1830.  Letter from Anne Marsh to her father James Caldwell addressed to him at 103 Pall Mall, postmarked 26 February 1831.  Reads as follows:

My dear Father
I could not help feeling disappointed when I received your kind note.  I had hoped to see you on Sunday, but as that is impossible, I shall look with much pleasure to your kind promise of coming soon.  I felt very anxious to hear of my dear Mother from yourself.  Davis has however sent me a little parcel in which is a note written with all her usual gaiety and in a very steady hand.  And Elizabeth Wedgwood, I met on Thursday at Lady Aldersons, she told me she had seen my mother and gave me a very favourable account of her looks & spirits.  I feel how terrible the shock of this attack must have been to you.  I hope however your own health is pretty good as you say nothing of it, it ought to be, to meet the tedium & anxiety of one of these London journeys.  Arthur called yesterday but was not lucky enough to find you at home.  He desires his kind regards.  I am ever my dear Father, your affectionate & dutiful daughter
Anne Marsh.
Waterloo, Saturday
[Anne's mother Elizabeth Caldwell died 9 April 1830]



4 June 1830 - Marsh Bankruptcy Sale. 

Particulars and condition of sale  of the Rectory of Shorne in the County of Kent; Shares in the Plymouth Dock Water Works, A Policy in the Equitable of £900 and the Revisions of Houses in Norfolk Street, Strand and Sloane Square.

For Sale at Garraway's on Friday, the 4th of June 1830 at one o'clock precisely.
E. Foster, 54, Pall Mall, and 14, Greek Street, Soho.

Particulars and Conditions of  Sale of the Impropriate Rectory of Shorne in the County of Kent with the Tithes of 1016 Acres of arable land, also Five Shares in the Plymouth Dock Water Works, a Policy for £900, in the Equitable and the Reversion to a Leasehold House, 13 Sloane Square and Two Capital Houses 23 and 25, Norfolk Street, Strand which will be sold by auction by Mr Edward Foster at Garraway's Coffee House,  'Change Alley, Cornhill, London on Friday, the 4th day of  June, 1830 at one o'clock precisely by Orders of the major part of the Commissioners in Two Commissions of Brankrupt issued against Messrs Marsh, Stracey & Co, Banker. Particulars may be had Twenty-one Days before the sale, at Garraway's; at the Bull, Rochester; Crown and Anchor, Gravesend; and at Mr. Edward Foster's offices, 54 Pall Mall and 14 Greek Street, Soho Square, London.

Particulars &c.

Lot 1

The Rectory and Parsonage of Shorne, near Rochester in the County of  Kent, with the barn and barn yards, together with the Tithes of the said Rectory and Parsonage, extending over Two Thousand Six Hundred and Eighty-seven acres of fertile land of which 1016 acres are at present arable in the Parish of Shorne, held under the Dean and Chapter of Rochester on a lease for a term of Twenty-One years commencing from Midsummer 1826, renewable every seven years, on payment of a fine, which at the Two last Renewals was assessed at £520. 10s. 9d.

The Glebe Land, including farm yard and Site of Buildings, is about half an acre. The Parsonage bar has two thicking floors and a shed for cattle, and is well situate for collecting the Tithes, near the Turnpike Road and the Village of Shorne, between the two good markets of Rochester and Gravesend.

The Rectory is subject by the Lease to the following obligations and Annual Charges:-

£. s. d.

Rent to Dean and Chapter20.0.0


Ditto, in lieu of Land Tax14.0.0

The Bishop of Rochester's Pension  1.0.0

To Ditto, when he visits Shorne, 12s  0.0.0

To the Archdeacon for Proxies at the Visitation  0.7.6

To the Vicar and Churchwardens of Shorne for the Poor0.10.0

To the Vicar of Shorne5.10.0


Lessee to find Rushes for the Church at Easter.

Also, once a year, a dinner for the Dean or Prebend, who may choose to preach at Shorne, upon giving Notice, and  Feed for his Horse, or 20s at the option of the Lessee. Also, Lessee to repair the Chancel of the Church and Barns.

Lot 2

Five Shares in the Plymouth Dock Works. The Debentures for which bearing Date respectively the 30th April, 1801, Nos. 144,145,146, 147, and 148.

Lot 3

Policy of Assurance in the Equitable Assurance Office, for £900 No.29,421, dated the 3rd of February, 1815, on the Life of Mr John Shilling, of Alton, in the County of  Hants,  Nursery Seedman, in his 56th year. Annual Payment, £31.8s.

Lot 4

The Revisionary Interest, Expectant on the Demise of a Lady without issue by her present Husband. (The Lady is now in her 61st Year and has no children) in a Dwelling House and Premises being No.13, Sloane Square, held for a term of Eighty Years, of which Twenty-eight years were unexpired at Michaelmas Day last past. Subject to a Ground Rent of £5 per annum. Now under-let to a respectable Tenant, at Forty Guineas per annum.

Lot 5

The like Revisionary Interest in a Capital Dwelling House and Premises, No.23 Norfolk Street, held for a term of Sixty Years, of which Twenty-two years were unexpired at Michaelmas Day last. Subject to a Ground Rent of £15 per annum.  Now under-let to a respectable Tenant, at £157. 10s per annum.

Lot 6

The life Revisionary Interest in a Capital Dwelling House and Premises, No.25 Norfolk Street, Strand, held for a term of Sixty Years, of which Twenty-two years were unexpired at Michaelmas  Day last. Subject to a Ground Rent of £20. Now under-let to a respectable Tenant, at £125 per annum.

Conditions of Sale

First - The highest bidder to be purchaser, and if any dispute shall arise between two or more bidders, the lot shall immediately be put up again and resold.

Second - No person to advance less than twenty guineas at each bidding on lot 1, and five guineas on lots 2,3,4,5, and  6.

Third - The purchaser to pay down immediately into the hands of Mr Foster, a deposit of £20, per cent, in part of the purchase money, and sign an agreement to pay the remainder on or before Midsummer-day-next, from which time they shall be entitled to the rents and profits of the premises: but should the completion of any of the purchases be delayed, from any cause whatever, beyond the time specified, the purchasers so delaying are to pay interest at the rate of £5 per cent per annum on the balance of their purchase monies from that time until the purchases shall be completed.

Fourth - The vendors will deliver abstracts of the debentures in lot 2, the policy of assurance in lot 3, and of the subsisting leases relating to the other lots, and all subsequent assignments, but they will not produce, nor shall the purchasers require the lessor's titles, or any evidence or explanation thereof.

Fifth - The purchasers shall have proper assignments of the several lots, at their own expense, on payment of the remainder of the purchase money, agreeably to the third condition.

Sixth - The subsisting lease of lot 1, the five debentures, and the policy of assurance relating to lots 2 and  3, will be delivered up to the purchasers on the completion of the respective purchaser thereof; but all the other title deeds, wills, and documents relating to the several lots, will be retained by the vendors, who will deliver attested copies of, or extracts from them, if required, to the respective purchasers, and enter into the usual covenants for the production of the originals. All such deeds of covenant, and attested or other copies or extracts to be prepared or procured by the vendors, at the expense of the parties requiring the same.

Seventh - The property described in this particular is presumed to be correct, but if any mistake or error shall hereafter appear, the same shall not vitiate or annul the sale, but a compensation shall be given or taken, as the case may require, to be settled by two indifferent persons, one to be chosen by the vendor, and the other by the purchaser, or their umpire.

Lastly - If the purchaser neglects or fails to comply with the above conditions, the money deposited in part of payment shall, at the expiration of the time before limited, be actually forfeited to  the vendor, who shall be at full liberty to re-sell the property, either by public or  private sale, and if,  on such re-sale, there shall be any deficiency, the purchaser at this sale,  neglecting to  comply with these conditions, shall make good such deficiency, together with all expenses attending such re-sale.

This being a sale by order of the Commissioners of Bankrupt, no Auction Duty is payable. 




14 June 1830.  Printed document advertising the Auction of property belonging to Arthur Cuthbert Marsh.  Reads as follows:

Particulars and Conditions of Sale

of the Impropriate Rectory of Shorne, in the County of Kent, with the Tithes of 1016 acres of arable land, also 5 shares in the Plymouth Dock Water Works, A Policy for £900 in the Equitable and the Reversion to a leasehold house, 13 Sloane Square, Two Capital Houses 23 & 25 Norfolk St, Strand, which will be sold by auction by Mr Edward Foster at Garraway's Coffee House, Change Alley, Cornhill, London, on Friday the 14th day of June 1830, by the order of the major part of the Commissioners in Two Commissions of Bankrupt issued against Messers Marsh, Stacey & Co, Bankers.

Lot 1 Sold for £4,600

Rectory and Parsonage of Shorne, near Rochester in the county of Kent 2687 acres of which 1016 acres are at present arable.

Lot 2Sold for £550

5 Shares in the Plymouth Dock Works.

Lot 3 Sold for £520

Policy of Insurance in the Equitable Insurance Office for £900, No29,421, Dated 3 February 1815, on the life of Mr John Shilling, of Alton, in the County of Hants, Nursery & Seedsman in his 56th year.

Lot 4Sold for £160

The Reversionary Interest, Expectant on the Demise of a Lady without issue by her present husband (the Lady is now in her 62nd year and has no children).  In a dwelling house and premises being No 13 Sloane Square.  Held for a term of 80 years of which 28 years were unexpired at Michaelmas Day last past.

Lot 5Sold for £330

The like reversionary interest in a Capital Dwelling house and premises No 23 Norfolk St. Strand.  Held for a term of 60 years of which 22 years were unexpired at Michaelmas Day last past.

Lot 6 Sold for £210

The like reversionary interest in a Capital Dwelling house and premises No 25 Norfolk St. Strand.  Held for a term of 60 years of which 22 years were unexpired at Michaelmas Day last past. . . .



15 November 1830.  Letter to James Caldwell from Tomlinson.

Letter to James Caldwell, Linley Wood, near Lawton from Tomlinson

Cliff ville, 15th Nov 1830

My dear Sir,

On looking into the papers of the Manor of Audley preparatory to the Court on Wednesday, I find the Plan which you delivered to me shewing the boundaries of your Freehold and Copyhold Lands , and my Minutes to have the same valued on the Court Rolls. I have therefore sketched out a Presentment, which I mean to bring before the [Homall?] on Wednesday; and I send the same for your inspection and hope it will be sufficient for the intended purpose and remaining,

My dear Sir,

Very faithfully yours,

J Tomlinson.

Tho the Homage[?] further present that a new Turnpike Road, or branch has been lately made thro certain Copyhold lands at [blank] which this Manor, belonging to James Stamford Caldwell Esq, by which certain parts of the said Copyhold Lands have been separated from the other, having such portions thereof as lie on the [hold in letter] of the [?] new Road in such small parcels, as to be inconvenient for their separated occupations.

They also present, that with the Leave of the Lord of the Manor the said James Caldwell has taken up and removed the fences of the said small portions of Copyhold Land on the north side thereof and laid the same open to the adjoining Freehold Land, but has put down Mear[?] stones denoting the boundaries of the said Copyhold Lands, and hath also brought to the Courts a Map shewing the said Freehold and Copyhold Lands and the boundaries thereof respectively, in order that the same may be deposited, and go with the Court Rolls of the Manor.


2 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from Mr Tremlow at Betley Court.

James Caldwell

Linley Wood

Betley Court

2nd February 1831

My dear Sir,

I am extremely glad to hear that Mrs Caldwell is better, though I cannot help regretting the necessity which obliges you to leave home. When I sent my servant to Linley on Friday last, I really felt so unwilling to trouble you on the subject of business that I refrained from trying, but the note you are kind enough to write to me, now has induced me to call upon you tomorrow, with the hope of going after to fix a day for our travelling together which to me would have been much the most agreeable plan. I am unfortunately so circumstanced with respect to some private business of my own, that my leaving home before the middle or end of the week is quite out of the question and I have calculated that about Thursday or Friday would have been the most convenient time for you as the case now stands I have only to regret that I cannot accompany you tomorrow, and to add that I hope to reach London by the Chester Mail on Friday or Saturday morning next, when I shall be glad to relieve you from as much labour as it may be in my power to do. I wrote to Sir George Chetwynd by last night’s post.

Believe me,

Very truly yours,






21 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from the Doctor Devenport.

J. Caldwell Esq.

103 Pall Mall


My dear Sir,

I am most happy to inform you Mrs Caldwell is going on quite well.

Dear Sir,

Most respectfully,

J. Davenport.


21st February 1831

22 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from the Doctor Devenport.  Post mark 24 Feb, 1831.

James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Tunstall, Tuesday 22nd Feb 1831

My dear Sir,

Mrs Caldwell is still going on well.

Dear sir,

Yours respectfully

J[?] Davenport.

24 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from the doctor Devenport.  Postmark 26th Feb 1831.

J.Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Tuesday 24th February 1831

Mrs Caldwell continuing going on well.






26 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his wife Elizabeth.


James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood, 26th February

Your letter, my dearest friend was a cordial to my heart, and I thought you the best of men for writing so much but fear your wish to gratify and amuse me was attended with much trouble to yourself. I cannot allow you to sacrifice too much. You inspire most plentiful proof of your love for which I feel truly grateful. I should have written a line on Thursday had not Mr Davenport thought it right to lay another blister on my back which put it out of any of my power, and yesterday I wished to tell you what a dreadful night I had passed and there was no post, the delay only gives me the opportunity of speaking of the good nights instead of me, my sleep seems to be returning to me and no complaints remaining except an occasional numbness in my hand and these gradually subsiding, and not the slightest unpleasant sensation in my head. Tomorrow I propose trying the air of the breakfast room, but it is very cold this morning, so I shall be wonderfully prudent to feel greatly obliged to St.George for the interest he so kindly takes about me, and pray make my affectionate acknowledgments to Dr Holland for his unremitting kindness to me and Mary for her good letters and I am a poor sender at present and own and fear scarcely intelligible I will write to her when I can and A’s letter. My line also at Waterloo . Bessy desires her best love to you. It goes to my heart to return so shabby a letter for your excellent one, but I can only affirm you dearest best of men that I am more than ever your tenderly affectionate and faithful wife,

Eliza Caldwell




26 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from Mr Davenport the doctor.


J.Caldwell Esq.

103 Pall Mall



Tunstable 26 Feb 1831.

My dear Sir,

There being no Post yesterday I did not write but Mrs Caldwell was doing well and today I believe she is much better than she has been during her indisposition, indeed she says “nothing is the matter with her and except a very slight sensation of the cramp, occasionally in the hand.”

Dear Sir,

Most respectfully you obedient Servant,






28 February 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his wife Elizabeth.  Post mark  2 MR1831. Scrawly handwriting for which she apologizes.  She died a few months later 9 April 1831.

James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood.

Feby 28.

It goes to my very heart my dearest friend to send you so[-bley?] a return for your kind long letters; which make me so happy, as I trust to your truth and love that I may rely upon your being in reality as well as you describe  yourself to be. For myself I go on improving though not with very great rapidity, the weather for the last two or three days having been very cold with a [pior] wind has made me very cautious in going down stairs, I know however my dear Caldwell that you will not blame me for a little unnecessary caution on that score of prudence, and I feel completely accountable to you as ever for my regards, more even than when you are present. Should[?] Mr Davenport not write quite so often as you expect, one thing you may certainly rely upon, that no news was good news. Stamford was prevented reaching us at the time he intended and we did not see him till Saturday, and he goes to the Sessions in the middle of the week. He and my faithful Bessy (who still kindly continues with me) send their kind love. Eliza came downstairs on Friday after a confinement of eleven weeks and hopes that she and my sister may be with us about the 8th, should the Parliament be dissolved and you set at liberty it has occurred to me that you would perhaps bring Anne down with you, this I shall not mention to her as you alone can judge how far it may be possible. I could have written better had I had better materials. I hope however it will be sufficient to convey the tender, fondest affection of the most attached of wives is your E. Caldwell

Be so good as to send Davies to Beck and Allens seed shop and desire they will send me by the post a printed list of her flower seeds. The shop is in the Strand .





2 March 1831.  Draft letter, much editing.  Presumably from James Caldwell.

Linley Wood, 2nd March 1831

My dear Sir,

I saw Mr Charles Lawton yesterday who approves of Mr Rimmer and will if necessary ride down to Cranage; but as this will be rather inconvenient to him, it will perhaps answer the same thing if you mention it to Mr Armistead tomorrow, whom I think you said should you see him tomorrow and nothing will then remain to be done but to apply to Mr Rimmer to get him to make his survey as speedily as possible.

I have sent to Mr Jones who I dare say will attend you on Monday morning though I have not yet hear from him.

My dear Sir,

It being fully thought best that Terms should be obtained to sell for the purpose of paying off the Mortgages, it will be necessary to make out a [problem, settlement?] statement of the latter, and as this will not be done by you and Mr Tomlinson being together he has fixed Monday morning next for that purpose when he will be glad to see you at Cliffe-ville wishes you to bring all the necessary papers along with you. As I am going to Wolsely Bridge on Monday and shall set off early will you favour me with your company at dinner here on Sunday at half past four o’clock and take a bed and I can then convey you as far as possible the following morning.





3 March 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from Mr Davenport.

James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Tunstall. March 3. 1831

My dear Sir,

Mrs Caldwell ahs been so – an so will  I have not considered it necessary to trouble you, daily, with a report. If I remember rightly you wished me to write you only so long as might seem requisite; I hope therefore my silence for the last few days has not been production of uneasiness. Indeed I have understood at Linley Wood that Mrs Caldwell has written to you lately. With respect to my present report of her case, all that I can say is, she appears in all respects quite as well as she has been for the last 6 or 7 months. Should anything seem contrary to Mrs Caldwell’s well being, be assured I will immediately inform you of it, but at all events, I will write in a few days.

Most humble?






7 March 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his wife Elizabeth.

Letter to
James Caldwell

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood

March 7th [?] 1831

My dearest Caldwell,

One line in this letter, in which I answered a good report of my unworthy self. I went down stairs yesterday evening and also the evening before and enjoyed it very much. It was a great pleasure to find myself sitting once more on that sofa, and all looking so comfortable and feeling so [reasmor?], one cannot sufficiently appreciate all the charms of that room till one has been for some time deprived of it, but what an additional charm it will have when you are sitting by my side. Mrs and Miss Tolland Miss [Caroline?] jun are here with me in my little dressing room on Monday and were extremely friendly. Mrs T told us that Sir – Arthur of Hanley was dead. We have [have?] heard no particulars whether he had been any time ill for Mr Davenport thought Mary had not wished the report. A copy of a section of the new tunnel came on Monday from Mr Pritchard, with a note in which he says the Navigation mines are laid down and the [others ten them?] and that he owes you for some [Stands Shelb?] and  send the letter or keep it till you return? No papers came last night that was of less importance than it would now be. We shall feel a little uneasy for the arrival of tomorrow’s post. Bessy and Stamford send dear love. The latter is setting out [frequent?] for the Sessions this morning. I shall rejoice to see again you which is a cheering to the heart of and my dearest Caldwell, most affectionate and faithful, E. Caldwell

No letter from Mr [Balging?]






10 March 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from Eliza – very difficult to read in places.

James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood

10th March 1831

As tomorrow will be a bank[?] day I am desirous of writing one line to my dearest friend by this post, though there is nothing to say except that I am gradually proceeding in my progress to recovering feeling as you said that I should be a Lady the rest of my life certainly of idleness and indeed almost a uselessness constitutes that character the epithet will be very appropriate to me.  Upon looking in my glass this morning I answered Margaret by saying I [wondered?] your master can like any thing so ugly as I now look; notwithstanding all this my spirits rise when I dwell upon your never failing affection and there seems a hope that we may go on a few more years happily together. But enough about my unworthy self. I want now to tell you that my sister, Eliza and her infant came here yesterday, Eliza looking better than might have been expected after all she has suffered which was far and more than I was.

If she proposes remaining a fortnight she I hope we shall recount her much. She with my sister and Bessy beg their kind love. They came with Stamford . I believe I forgot in my last letter, though I had a great injunction as to do. Stamford is not here just at this time. He goes to the Sessions on Friday. I heard last night that the last [rune?] returned home suddenly on account of the illness of Legions, although I should imagine must have been a dangerous state. You mentioned that given down of your Jack my Emma may dearest regret it - - and feel almost and agitated to think of the hurry and fatigue.

You are undergoing and how [prudent?] this strong [confaight?] were ever and that you could [wax seal in way] return to your tenderly affectionate and faithful wife.
E. Caldwell

Be so good as to give the other half sheet to Davies.





14 March 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his wife Elizabeth.


James Caldwell Esq.

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood

14th March 1831

Thank you again and again my dearest Caldwell for your long and most welcome letter, would I could answer it with the like, but though it is now many days since I had a return of sensation[?] in my hand it is very over tired with the exertion of writing, and Mr Davenport is always recommending me doing them in this way and every other, particularly those parts of my frame as have most affected. I was particularly well on Friday; but being not quite so tired on Saturday he advised a repetition of leeches, which seemed to have set all right again. I certainly feel gaining ground. Bessy will return tomorrow should the day be per-=-l ; it will grieve me in not to part with her but she thinks it not right to leave Mr Skerrett any longer; all desire and love to you. I hope we shall improve Eliza’s health but she is not very strong. Her baby is one of the loveliest infants that I ever saw. Pray give my love to Mr H with my sincerest thanks for the kind letters and things, I will answer as soon as I have the power of doing it. At present it is all I can do to scrawl a letter to you my dearest friend even in this upsetting[?] and useless way. I trust and assume it will give you the assurance and tried ever truly never be necessary as long as life remains to me, but I am ever and at all times your tenderly affectionate and faithful wife,

Eliza Caldwell

Forster, the [Clerk?] at Talke was on Saturday found dead in his garden, assumed to have fallen on returning from his work.



19 March 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his wife Elizabeth.


James Caldwell Esq

103 Pall Mall


Linley Wood, 19th March 1831

I have the vanity to believe, my dearest Caldwell, that you love to see my handwriting, if only for a few lines, particularly when it tells you as it may this morning, that I am tolerably well, at the same time feeling sensible that 76 does not rally so speedily or permanently as 36, but I have the fear of you before my eyes being careful of myself. For your dear sake hope we may be permitted to pass on in comfort together some time longer. I fear that you will be terribly harassed with the great exertions you are called upon to make and that there is little probability of your release before the end of the month. The pound note that came in the packet was a cordial to my heart in every respect; and all the contents of the packet were most satisfactory being precisely what I wished. I of course, have not given the slightest hint to Anne of her returning with you knowing that you could best judge of the propriety of it, and thinking that Mr FT [Tollet?] might perhaps accompany you; in a letter I had from her on Tuesday she said my father was last year so kind as to propose bringing me down with him when I dared not venture; should he have the goodness to repeat the proposal I should now have no fear by accepting it. Should there be any objection to this, for you must do nothing that can by possibility expose you to any restrain or uncomfortableness it has occurred to me that Anne might return with Mr Wedgwood and Elizabeth if they travel, as they generally do in the mail coach, and it might be well to mention this to her if you think proper. I have asked Mrs Wedgwood and Elizabeth and Ann I – if she can come to dinner tomorrow as my sister and Eliza will be there to entertain them. I shall just take that portion of their company which will be perfectly proper for me and no more. Mrs Moreton brought Mrs Sneyd of Ashcombe yesterday morning to call and whom I was very glad to see, we not having met for years. An invitation came for you to attend the funeral of Mr Lawton on Saturday. I replied that you were in London and not expected to return before that time, that I was sure you would regret not having it you power to show this respect to the memory of Mr Lawton. We hope Eliza is gaining a little strength amongst us. Bessy went home yesterday. Stamford is not yet returned from Stafford where I am told there is much business. And now my dearest best of husbands and of friends, farewell, and ever loved as you are beloved by your tenderly affectionate wife,

Eliza Caldwell

My sister and Eliza beg kind love to you





? 1831.  Part of letter from Eliza to James Caldwell at 103 Pall Mall, London. Postmark1831.  Must be before April 1831.

Health too, though going[?] on very well and that the slightest return except a little in my hand I am very prudent and be determined to go downstairs this week I am gaining a little strength –ling upon sweetbreads and boiled eggs. We have not yet seen Stamford but are hourly expecting him, and Eliza sent me word her cough is better but she has determined to come here today. Bessy love, every think of me as your tenderly affectionate and faithful wife, E Caldwell





9 April 1831.  Elizabeth Caldwell died at Linley Wood.

9 April 1831. Note not dated but probably relates to the death of Elizabeth Caldwell.


Written by Mr Forster of Newcastle.

Sacred to Virtue!

Underneath this Stone lie the mortal remains

[The immortal part being ascended to the regions of bliss]

Of  - -  V---                 [Mrs Caldwell]

A woman

Who to her personal charms united the more permanent beauties

Of every mental accomplishment,

Affabled, good tempered, a stranger to pride, benevolent and devout;

An of the beautys of nature

She studed with peculiar satifaction

The Lynmean System

The solidity of her understanding was sufficiently evinced

In her choice of a man

With whom to pass the short space of time allotted to us

In this state of mortality

Her life was a flat contradiction to the assertions of the

Abbiated Rochefaucauld that there are no happy marriages

And her death

Which was singularly lamented by all who had the felicity of knowing her

[save by the envious of her own sex]

Show’d with what heroic fortitude, calmness and composure

A Christian

Who had lived in this exercise of piety and virtue [condensed?]

The beneficial Creator



28 May 1831.  Invitation to James Caldwell from the Marquis of Stafford.

Addressed to:

James Caldwell

Linley Wood

Near Lawton


London, May twenty eight 1831

James Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood




The Marquis of Stafford desires the Honor of Mr Caldwell’s company at dinner on Friday

To Meet H.R.H. the Prince of Wales at 6 o’clock.


23 August 1831.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell.  Contents misplaced.

London August twenty three 1831

James Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood


Mr – Villiers



22 Sept 1831.  Letter to James Caldwell from his son in law Henry Holland.

London Sept twenty two


James Caldwell

Linley Wood


2 Bond St, Thursday

My dear Sir,

I should not have thought it worth while to write again today, but from the [casualty, currently?] of a [friend?]. And I merely send a hasty line to say that as I have heard this morning from my sister that she is going from Nantwich to Maer, I shall go thither first, either tonight or tomorrow, according to the circumstances occurring here. ( But probably tonight) and shall [like?] to be with you at Linley Wood either on Saturday or Sunday. I trust it will not be in any way[?] inconvenient to you, that I leave the exact times thus far uncertain.

A fearful degree of interest exists at this moment as to the unhappy Reform Bill which has now come to the most critical part of it fate. I have just been seeing one of the Cabinet Ministers as a patient, under such as I think, lay his anxiety on the subject. I hear from both sides unbounded admiration of Sir R. Peel’s speech last night. It had very great affect upon the House.

Farewell, my dear Sir, till I see you..

Ever yours cont affections,

H. Holland.




6 October 1831.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell.  Post mark 6 Oct 1831.  Contents misplaced.

J. Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood





8 October 1831.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell, post mark 8 Oct 1831.  Contents misplaced.

London October eight

James Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood


Edward Petre



1 November 1831.  Letter envelope to James Caldwell post mark 1 Nov 1831.  Contents misplaced.

J. Caldwell, Esq

Linley Wood


PM Hay



28 November 1831.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell, Post mark 28 Nov 1831.  Contents misplaced.

J. Caldwell

Linley Wood


R.L. Neil





10 December 1831.  Envelope addressed to the Navigation Office,  post mark 10th Dec 1831.  Contents misplaced.

To the Select Committee

Navigation Office







1832?  Extract from page 376 of Vol 1 of Harriet Martineau's Autobiography, published in 1877.  This extract is identified as being from the period 1832-1834.  As "Two Old Men's Tales" was published in 1834, the following meeting probably took place in 1832-1833.  The extract reads as follows:

I was spending a couple of days at Mrs Marsh's, when she asked me whether I would let her read to me "one or two little stories" which she had written.  From her way of speaking of them, and from her devotion to her children, who were then for the most part very young, I concluded these to be children's tales.  She ordered a fire in her room, and there we shut ourselves up for the reading.  What she read was no child's story, but "The Admiral's Daughter".  My amazement may be conceived.  We were going to dine at the Wedgwoods': and a strange figure we must have cut there; for we had been crying so desperately that there was no concealing the marks of it.  Mrs Marsh asked me what I thought of getting her tales published.  I offered to try if, on reading the manuscript at home, I thought as well of it as after her own most moving delivery of it.  A second reading left no doubt in my mind; and I had the pleasure of introducing the "Two Old Men's Tales" to the world through Messers Saunders & Oatley , from whom, as from the rest of the world, the author's name was withheld as long as possible.  Mr Marsh made this the condition of our attempt: a condition which we thought perfectly reasonable in the father of many daughters, who did not wish their mother to be known as the author of what the world might consider second-rate novels.  That the world did not consider them second-rate was immediately apparent; and the reason for secrecy existed no longer.  But no one ever knew or guessed the authorship through my mother or me, who were for a considerable time the only possessors of the secret.  From that time Mrs Marsh managed her own affairs; and I never again saw her works till they were published.  I mention this because, as I never concealed from her, I think her subsequent works very inferior to the first: and I think it a pity that she did not rest on the high and well deserved fame which she immediately obtained.  The singular magnificence of that tale was not likely to be surpassed: but I have always wished that she had either stopped entirely, or had given herself time to give justice to her genius.  From the time of the publication of "The Two Old Men's Tales" to the present hour, I have never once, as far as I remember, succeeded in getting anther manuscript published for anybody.



4 January 1832.  Letter to James Caldwell from his daughter Anne Marsh.

James Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood




Wednesday Jn[?] 4th, 1832

My dear Father,

I have to thank you for quite a noble round of red beef which arrived in perfect safety yesterday morning. Its appearance gave rise to some rash thoughts, as was natural, but I felt much gratified at this proof, that we were remembered so kindly by one so deeply honoured. And whose thoughts must have so many other matters to occupy them. The Beef was followed by your letter, most gratifying and most touching. I feel an awkwardness sometimes in expressing my feelings, fearing that if I were to express all the affectionate admiration of which my heart is full that it might appear to go something beyond that reverence, which as a child I always have and always shall feel for my Father. But you are very indulgent to my poor efforts to explain my feelings. And such words of affection and confidence are dearer to me than I can find words to tell. How well I think I understood that sad return of the thoughts, after a little distraction in society, and it is the apprehension that such are the solitary hours, which diminishes so much the happiness with which I hear of improved cheerfulness, and apparent health. Still I greatly rejoice even in them because I cannot but consider a proof that the general health and strength must be improved where such efforts are possible. The affliction, the privation, few have experienced, few experiencing have the heart to feel in the same degree, few feeling have had the courage to endure with what, forgive the expression, I think heroic patience, my poor dear Uncle. Got when he will, and how he will, it is impossible not to grieve very much over such a kind worthy cheerful friend as he has been, for so long a course of years. My dear good Aunt Bessy seems repaid for all her exertions by the affectionate letter of approbation she has received from you. I look forward to coming to Linley in Spring when you are so good as to say you will be glad to see me, with quite a longing feeling. I will not attempt to say how often my thoughts dwell upon the many hours I passed with you last spring, and how often I wish I had the power to fly down for a few days and renew them. My children are thank God, all well now except Louisa, whose eyes are still useless. For myself I only suffer by being obliged to be very idle, with abundance of rest I am very comfortable, and few in this world have so little reason to complain. I have been quite a prisoner of late, and have heard nothing. There is little I believe to hear if I circulated more. Barnes the Editor of the Lines[?] the 4th power in the state, says over his wine, that the Bill once passed, he shall write the Ministry out in six weeks and then shall proceed to write down the Church. He acknowledges to an old College jealousy of the Bishop of London as the cause of this last determination. Mr Majendie the famous French anatomist who is celebrated by the way for his barbarous experiments upon animals, has been dining in Brook Street on his return from Sunderland to Paris. He says the Cholera differs from other disorders, in that they end, but this beings with death. He has seen the most robust men, pass from apparent perfect health to death in one hour. He has invented the term [hole in paper] Graveriser[?] to express the change produced on the countenance in this extraordinary disease. We are all going tomorrow, 7 children to pass twelfth day in Brook St. Noise enough there will be. My dear Father your affectionate and dutiful daughter, Anne.



26 January 1832.  Printed note regarding subscribing for the Liverpool to Birmingham Railway.


[Envelope addressed to:]

James Caldwell Esq.

Linley Wood



W.S. Roscoe Esq., Liverpool.


[Printed letter.]


At an adjourned GENERAL MEETING of the subscribers to the Liverpool and Birmingham Railway, held at the Clarendon Rooms, South John Street, Liverpool, on Wednesday the 25th of January, 1832.


John Moss, Esq. in the Chair.


The Resolutions of the last General Meeting, and the Report of the Committee having been read as follows:-

“The Committee are desirous, upon the present occasion, considering the importance of the question now submitted to the Subscribers, to lay before them, in some detail, the result of their examination of the subject. In stating their views to the Meeting, some preliminary observations on the general prospects of Railway communication will not, they presume, be deemed irrelevant.

It will be remembered, that when this company was first projected, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway was still unfinished and untried. Since that time, the successful operation of that great enterprise, (which, it should be observed, was exposed to peculiar difficulties, and subjected to much expense, from which succeeding projects, profiting by its experience, will escape) has, they conceive, more than justified the opinion, which they declared at that time to the public, as to the advantages of Railway communication. They consider it now clearly establish, that undertakings of this nature, on great lines of travelling, will ensure to the projectors a certain and very considerable profit, and to the Public advantages which it would be difficult to over-rate. On this point, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway has furnished evidence both valuable and conclusive. The facilities it affords to travelling and to the transmission of Mechandize requiring speed, and the consequent immense extension of intercourse and traffic which has ensued, fully demonstrate the superiority of this mode of communication above all others, to a degree which must ultimately render it the sole conveyance for passengers, also the great thoroughfares of the kingdom. In confirmation of this opinion, your Committee beg to enumerate a few particulars respecting the travelling between Liverpool and Manchester, previous to and since the opening of the Railway.


The amount paid for Coach Travelling and for parcels, estimated according to the ascertained gross receipts of certain Coaches, in one year, was £55,000

Amount paid for Travelling by the Railway during the first year from its opening £99,700


Shewing an increase of the amount paid for Coach Travelling of nearly 100 percent. And if it be taken into account, that the fares are one-half less than were formerly charged, the increase in the number of persons carried will be found to have been at least 200 percent. an examination has also been made of the comparative numbers conveyed by Railway and by Coaches, respectively, at different periods of the year; with the view of discriminating the ratio of increase during the months in which many, from curiosity, or a desire of amusement alone, might have visited the Railway, from that observed in the winder quarters, when the travelling is chiefly restricted to the demands of necessary business. The very important result thus elicited is as follow:-


The money receipts from Passengers, by Coaches, between Liverpool and Manchester, in the years 1829 and 1830, averaged during the summer months £1,500 per week

Money receipts per Railway, during the same period of the year 1831,averaged £2,562 per week, shewing an increase of about 70 per cent.

Amount received, as above, by Coaches, during an average of winter months, was about £555 per week, amount received during the same period, per Railway £1,272 exhibiting an increase of 129 per cent.

But it ought to be stated, that there were other modes of communication, such as Packet-Boats, Chaises, &c. existing before the opening of the Railway, and which were afterwards partially or altogether suspended. In estimating the amount previously paid for public travelling, these ought to betaken into account, and would affect to a certain, but only very limited extent, the calculation just submitted. Making a far allowance under this head, the increase of the amount paid for travelling of all kinds, between Liverpool and Manchester, since the opening of the Railway, cannot be less than 70 percent. That the same, or greater results, would be exhibited on the Road now under discussion, cannot admit of a reasonable doubt; and when it is considered, that the vast population of the Metropolis, and it adjacent Ports, of all the counties lying southwest of the Trent, besides the active commercial communities of Birmingham, Manchester and Liverpool, are brought, as it were, into immediate contact, the Committee find it difficult to assign bounds to the profits that may be expected to flow from this branch of revenue.


“In the Carriage of Goods, the increase shewn by the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, is from 42,699 Tons Goods, and 2,889 Tons Coals in the first six months of 1831, to 65,231 Tons Goods, and 8,197 Tons Coals in the last six months.

It may be further mentioned, in proof of what a Railway is able to perform, that a regiment of 900 soldiers was lately conveyed to Liverpool, in about two hours from the time of their departure from Manchester; and this without any interruption to the ordinary travelling along the line. To complete the distance, according to the usual method of marching troops, would have occupied two days [x]


[x]  The establishment of the projected Railway from Birmingham to Warrington only, would enable the London Mails to arrive in Dublin and Scotland, at least six hours earlier than they now do.


These facts, with many others, which are already familiar to most of the Subscribers, afford satisfactory evidence of what may be effected by Railways; and, while they silence the objections formerly urged against them, hold out great encouragement to promoters of similar undertakings. The rapid rise in the value, and the present high price of shares in the Stockton and Darlington, and Liverpool and Manchester Railway Companies, afford satisfactory proof of the confidence with which they are regarded, as lucrative investments of capital.

Such being the confirmed impression of your Committee as to the benefits of Railway communication, they may now be asked whether they still entertain the same favourable opinion of this particular scheme, which they expressed upon its first publication. Every successive investigation which they have made has more thoroughly convinced them of the advantages which the project holds out to its supporters. The subscribers are already in possession of a statement (purposely computed on a most moderate scale,) shewing the present annual sum paid for travelling between Liverpool and Birmingham, and Manchester and Birmingham, severally. If to this amount be added the percentage of increase which has taken place in the instance of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the nett income from the branch of Public travelling alone, would yield upwards of 13 per cent upon the estimated outlay of the undertaking. But upon this head, they have further assurance in the broad, indisputable fact, that a rapid growth of intercourse, and consequent prosperity, have invariably rewarded improvements in the medium of communication. The opening of a road, as shewn in a hundred instances, often creates a traffic between places which, before, had no relations with each other: how much more, then, must such immense facilities as a Railway supplies, augment a trade already active, and prepared, with such encouragement, to assume new energy and expansion. On adverting, therefore, to the rapid progress of Liverpool, Manchester, and Birmingham, in population and opulence, and viewing the proposed line as the great link, connecting London and the South of England with Liverpool, Scotland, and Ireland, it must be seen, that an increase upon the present certain, that the benefit of communication by Railway cannot long be withheld from a thoroughfare of such commercial and national importance.

While the favourable expectations suggested by this undertaking have remained unchanged, the political and financial events of the past year, the failure of the Company’s Bill by the sudden dissolution of Parliament, and other causes, tending to excite anxiety and disappointment in the public mind, have induced several of the subscribers to the Birmingham end to embrace the opportunity afforded them, of withdrawing from the Company. The number of seceders from the Liverpool end, has, however, been very small, amounting to 810, upon 4,995 shares, a proof that the confidence of the Liverpool subscribers is unabated, they have now to decide, whether it is expedient to proceed at once, or to defer, for another year, the application for an Act of Parliament, continuing, however, united , and ready to profit by the reaction which the progress of a few months will not fail to produce in favour of a measure of such great and demonstrable advantage. The Committee are so fully persuaded of its wisdom and practicability, as to feel they expect, that among the first results of a return to political tranquility, will be its revival in public estimation. That a communication of such vast national importance, must, sooner or later, be opened, no one can for a moment doubt; it only remains for the Subscribers to decide, whether they will secure for themselves, or whether they will leave to others, the benefits of the undertaking which they originated, and of which they have already, with great expense and toil, prepared the successful accomplishment, with far more favourable prospects than attended their first application to Parliament.

John Moss, Chairman

Liverpool, January 24th, 1832.


It was resolved,

That the Report be approved.

That the prospect of advantage likely to be derived by the public and the proprietors, from the establishment of a Railway communication between Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham and the Metropolis, becomes daily more encouraging, whilst the expediency and necessity of such a communication are apparent.

That one consolidated Company be now formed to be called “The Grand Junction Railway Company,”) for the establishment of Railway from the Warrington and Newton Railway, at Warrington, to Birmingham, or from or to any other point or place between Liverpool, Manchester and Birmingham, which may seem more desirable to the Committee of Management to be now appointed; and that application be made to Parliament for an Act of Incorporation, in the present or some future Session or Sessions, at the discretion of the Committee.


The Scipholders in the late Liverpool and Birmingham Company be entitled to exchange their Scrip, for an equal number of Scrip in the present undertaking, and to increase the number of their share out of the relinquished Scrip to an extent not exceeding one-half of their present number of Shares, on paying the sum of £2 9s for each such additional share, on or before the 3rd day of February next, or on or before such extended time as the committee shall for that purpose appoint.

That all other persons desiring to become Subscribers shall pay 5per Share.

That the Gentlemen of the Committee of the Liverpool and Birmingham Railway Company, [‘appointed’ crossed out] be requested to continue their services, and that they, or such of them as shall consent to act, be appointed a Committee of Management, and that they continue in office until the Act for Liverpool, (with power to supply vacancies, and add to their numbers, so as the Committee exceed not 14 for Liverpool, and 14 for Birmingham) and that at all meetings of the Committee, or of Sub-committees, the Chairman for the time being shall in case of need, have a second or casting vote.

That the above Gentlemen be and they are hereby invested with full discretionary powers for carrying the undertaking into complete effect, in the present or any other future Session of Parliament, and, particularly, powers to make arrangements with Land Owners and others, and with the Liverpool and Manchester Railway Company, and the Warrington and Newton Railway Company, as to the latter, as well with reference to the use of their present line, as also to the proposed extension thereof, for powers to make which they have given notice of their intention to apply for Parliament in the present session.

That the said Committee be, and they are hereby authorized to appoint Select and Sub-committees for dividing the labours of the undertaking, and to delegate to them all or any of their own powers.

That the Capital  of the Company be £1,000,000, to be divided into Shares of 100 each, which the Committee may dispose of in the first place to Scripholders as before provided, and the residue according to their discretion, reserving such number as they see fit for distribution amongst Land Owners and other influential persons.

That the Parliamentary undertaking, and also an agreement between the Subscribers, be immediately prepared on the basis of these resolutions, and with such other provisions as the Committee may think expedient.

That the Committee have power to appoint Bankers, Solicitors, Engineers, and other Officers and Agents, for carrying the undertaking into effect.

That the thanks to the Meeting be given to the Committee for their excellent Report, and that the same be printed and circulated amongst the Subscribers.

John Moss, Chairman.

The Chairman having risen, resolved, that the thanks of the Meeting be given to him for his conduct as Chair.


Grand Junction Railway


Referring to the foregoing Resolutions, you are particularly requested without delaly to signify the number of Shares which you desire to hold in this undertaking, by letter, to Mr. Chorley, the Secretary, at the Office of the Company, in Cook street, Liverpool, or to the care of,

Your obedient Servants,

Pritt & Clay,

Solicitors, Union Court,


26th January 1832.



7 February 1832.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell.  Contents misplaced.

London, February seven 1832

J. Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood


E.R. Stubbs.



16 February 1832.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell, post mark 16 Feb 1832.  Contents misplaced.

London February sixteen 1832

J. Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood





21 February 1832.  Envelope addressed, to James Caldwell, post mark 21 Feb 1832.  Contents misplaced.

London, February Twenty one

J. Caldwell

Linley Wood



23 February 1832.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell. Contents misplaced.

London, February 23, 1832

J. Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood


P.H. Howard


30 March 1832.  Envelope addressed to James Caldwell, post mark 30 March 1832.  Contents misplaced.

J. Caldwell Esq

Linley Wood


B Heywood


1834.  Anne Marsh's first book is published "Two Old Men's Tales" ( A two volume work containing two stories; The Deformed, The Admiral's Daughter).  It was an immediate success and went to a second edition in the same year.



26 July 1834.  Letter from Anne Marsh to her brother James Stamford Caldwell.  Addressed to James Stamford Caldwell, Mr Wilsons, Spirit Merchant, Bridge Street, Chester.  Postmarked Boulogni 28 July 1834.

Boulogne Sur Mer
July 26th [1834]
My dear Stamford
I write by return of post in reply to your painful letter, it gives me indeed much pain to see you in so uneasy a state of mind.  I can sincerely wonder at it.  Nothing makes one feel so melancholy & deserted as the not getting letters.  As for myself you gave me no direction & I was forced to wait until you wrote, for poor Eliza [their sister Hannah Eliza Roscoe] she has been in great affliction occasioned by the unexpected death of Mr Edward Roscoe, who is as you well know a very serious loss to all his connections & she probably too has written to you on the . . . [circuit?] & the letter has missed or she has like me waited for a direction, for my father you know he never answers any of our letters.  He receives letter after letter from me & never writes again except [a] letter when business imperiously requires it.  That probably your letter might not require an answer at all events it would be a subject very painful & awkward for him to enter upon.  He was certain in such a case that to break . . . [thrap?] his usual habits, & write, when writing is now so painful to his eyes & irksome to him, I do not know what you said in your letter but do not be angry with me dear Stamford for saying that.  I hope it was not written in the spirit of the one I have just received.  It seems to me that any one who sent it without knowing what had passed would fancy it was my father who was to blame instead of yourself.  You seem quite to have forgotten, that you are in fault and have committed a faute also, in suffering yourself to be betrayed into two such expressions to a man of his age, a man of his character & your own father, surely if there be anything but mere pretence in the command of God to honour our parents, it must mean, that we are not ever to beat them upon terms of equality, but in every cornerstone to preserve to them a reverence & respect upon which others could have no claim.  My father I believe expressed no violent resentment upon the occasion, but that such sentences can be written, & be forgotten is as impossible as to roll back the waves.  What we have said will remain & will have its effect.  My father could not feel to you after the fatal words as he had done before. Nothing but a handsome apology & the most complete one can in the nature of things efface the impressions, which our hasty words against us, the most generous minds cannot if they ever so much desire efface them.  I speak from experience, from bitter experience of the evils my own hasty nature has brought upon myself, but my dear Stamford to turn round & be angry with the person whom we have hurt by our unguardedness & blame them is surely the zenith of injustice.  I assure you my father used no intemperate expressions when he told me, for which he was in no hast to do, it came out in confidence after dinner one day, when I had been speaking of the respect I was sure you had for him.  He seemed rather shocked than offended, & spoke of it as of something that had painfully surprised & affected his nerves, & as of an impression the repetition of which in his present state of health he could not bare, & I tell you forcibly in the state he was in when I was with him I am sure he could not.  Then dear Stamford you should remember, when you speak of his dissatisfaction there is some cause.  You may have done all in your power to succeed & your own conscience may requite you, but put yourself in my father's place, a man full of ambition to found & convey forward a family.  Recollect the efforts made to start you well in the world to make a place for you & to secure the means aided by your own exertions of fixing you in the country.  I do not know how for you I have such sentiments of ambition.  Men are differently made but ask yourself, how much you have effected in aid of my father's ambition & then say is it unnatural that he should feel disappointed.  It is after all but a poor answer to a man like him.  I have done my best.  When he sees what is the sum total, had I been a man I think I . . . [dont?] have . . . [kid?] a good position of ambition like my father, I do not know whether . . . [chemisty?] more easily satisfied like your own & my own mother's are not quite as worthy & as happy but all I intend to say is that if we are to be candid & considerate to the different dispositions of one another surely we ought to be most especially so to temperaments of our parents and we must not ever allow ourselves to think that we can be satisfied in saying or doing a wounding thing to them because thy wounds.  I say all this my dear Stamford because I was really quite shocked at the sort of blame your letter seems throwing on my father in this case instead of taking it honestly to yourself, & saying what a consummate fool I was not to keep my tongue quiet, & I would give anything the words were unsaid, & what is the best to be done now, & c, & c.  You are ready enough to blame yourself in general, pray do not leave off that sordid habit just now when I think you never had in your life so much occasion to "box your own ears" as Lord . . . [Elintop?]says.  Don't be angry with me my dear Stamford.  I have made a determination to write the truth & the whole truth to you.  I will own I sometimes want . . . [usage?] to speak it but by my warm way of speaking I should hesitate & do mischief.  I wrote directly on coming here to my father what you desired.  My advice to you now is to take no more notice of the matter you have made your apologies that is all you can do let the thing be forgotten as fast as you can.  Of one thing we . . . all the female part of your family, & most of all that good gentle yet wise & courageous Aunt Besy, do anything in their power to promote your interests behind your back.  You must not by your own faith render it impossible to do any good.  Do shake off morbid & distasteful feelings endeavour to love easy.  Surely if ever you mean to be easy you must begin every one has their . . . [cxpes?] yours are not greater than those of others.  Don't make yourself impossibly without reason.  Now don't go and cut up this letter written in haste & when I am not well & fancy this or that unkind, believe me the honest kindness is full & intended.  Dear Stamford ever your affectionate AM.
There are no pleasant people here but the place I like very much & I would like to see you here.  I am very busy with masters & have time for no visits but I know one or two.  No nice young ladies or gentlemen though.  . . .  [Pay?] direct to me at once  when you will if some bother . . . [horble?].
Chez M Bellet 60 Rue de Boston, Boulogne Sur Mer.








1835. Rough scribble draft letter/indenture of some sort. Very difficult to read. Probably James Caldwell.



This indenture made the – day of 1835 between –

[‘We the undersigned Mary Crompton, Edie Crompton – and –‘ crossed out]

Executors named and appointed in the last Will and Testament of –  in their named P.C. Crompton deceased died of the James Caldwell of Linley Wood in the County of Stafford Esq, - of the 2nd party, of the 8.d.p.t. witnesseth that in [certain?] of 5/ a piece do hereby at the regard of and by the direction of the within mentioned James Caldwell assign transfer and set over All and singular the Messuages Lands, Tenements and Hereditaments which in and by the within Indenture or by the Indenture of [demise?] of 9th day of July 1822 therein recorded and confirmed to were granted to or rested in the deceased Peter Crompton and his executors and assignees for the term of 200 years. In Name and to Hold the said Messuages, Lands, Tenements, and Hereditments unto the – his assignes and – and –for all the said  - - term of 2000 years now to come and – the same Trust and to and for the same intents and purposes as are mentioned and to transfer of and concerning the same in and by the within written Indenture for Witness as –



3 March 1835.  Extract of a letter from Elizabeth Wedgwood to her mother. This is taken from page 266, of Vol 1 of "Emma Darwin, A Century of Family Letters" published 1915.  The letter is addressed from Clapham, and dated Tuesday 3rd March 1835.  The extract reads as follows:

Saturday we dined at the [Marshes] . . . Anne was very pleasant, and when we got round the fire after dinner she talked a great deal with an openness that was very  engaging about her book [Two Old Men's Tales] and her feelings.  I was in hopes that her being known as the author would have saved her from hearing disagreeable things; but she told us of some things that had been said that she would have given a thousand pounds rather than they should have been said.  I cannot think who could tell her.  She was very much amused when she dinned at Lady Millman's to find Mr Murray paying court to her as if she was somebody.  I think the vexation of being known has more than counterbalanced the pleasure of her success, but the pleasure of the writing itself seems to be very great.



3 March 1835.  Extract of a letter from Elizabeth Wedgwood to her mother. This is taken from page 266, of Vol 1 of "Emma Darwin, A Century of Family Letters" published 1915.  The letter is addressed from Clapham, and dated Tuesday 3rd March 1835.  The extract reads as follows:

&ldots; Saturday we dined at the [Marshes] &ldots; Anne was very pleasant, and when we got round the fire after dinner she talked a great deal with an openness that was very  engaging about her book [Two Old Men's Tales] and her feelings.  I was in hopes that her being known as the author would have saved her from hearing disagreeable things; but she told us of some things that had been said that she would have given a thousand pounds rather than they should have been said.  I cannot think who could tell her.  She was very much amused when she dinned at Lady Millman's to find Mr Murray paying court to her as if she was somebody.  I think the vexation of being known has more than counterbalanced the pleasure of her success, but the pleasure of the writing itself seems to be very great.



14 March 1835.  Letter from Hannah Eliza Roscoe to her sister Anne Marsh.  The letter is addressed to Mrs Arthur Marsh, Waterloo, Kilburn.  The postmarks are difficult to read but definitely 1835.  They may have been a second sheet which is missing.

My dearest Anne
Though you would get a letter from me soon after writing the one I have this moment received, yet I cannot delay writing a few lines to set your kind heart at not about me.  If you could see how much better I am in health & spirits than I have been for the last few years, no more need be said & it was my wish that you should see this before you heard what I know would give you some pain, that made we wish you should not hear it till I could tell you myself, but I suppose I neglected giving Maud any change on the subject, or I dare say she would have attended to it.  I find the harass of teaching other person's children so much less than that of teaching my boys & they do so much better at school, that I am quite satisfied I have done what was best, & the girls I am so sure do so much better at school than at home.  They are besides under my eye, & receive part of their instruction from me, which I like.  I go every morning to Miss . . .  [Daulbys?] by nine, & stay till about half past 12, when if I have no business in town, I come back to the little boys dinner, & after that have the day to myself, teaching the girls music in the afternoon, & a little French to Thomas Eliz . . . [Moses?] Arthur.  She going out every day let the weather be what it will, at a certain hour (& I have not been prevented by illness or weathered six days altogether since I began last August).  I find the best thing in the world for health, I never in my life was so free from colds, & an occupation out of my run horse to which I must give attention, as good for my spirits, & certainly no one who has not tried can tell the pleasant feeling of getting something by one's own labour, so that I have no doubt the circumstances which have forced me on this are on the whole beneficial, though there are moments when I could feel it hard to bring all the fortune & do all the work, but this is not William's fault who is so much . . . [better?] as you could wish at it.  Jane is so good as to teach Frank in a morning & seldom goes out till between 11 or 12 when one of the servants take him to walk, so he is not neglected in my absence or left to servants.  So my dearest Anne do not add this to your troubles & . . . [aouietees?].  I did not wish to tell my father because I knew it would give him pain, & I could not make him feel all the advantages, & I do not even wish that he should make it unnecessary.  I feel my independence such a pleasure, & as to consideration, I have lost none in the circle in which I move, & gained with some of those I most value.  It will be on the whole more agreeable to me to come to you in May.  I bargained for a month's holiday when I made my engagement at I was & said I would if possible . . . [bring?] in the Easter, but as it is I must take the month without which will be so much the better for me, only I should like to come to you as early as possible in May, that my visit may be  as long as I can make it.  I was sorry to hear from Henry that Maria did not thank you . . .  [seemed?] at all well.  I am afraid you are sadly worried far more than I am.  I am going to write a line to Henry to desire him to tell Maria not to be . . . [aexed?].  My kind love to Arthur.  I deeply feel the kind interest he takes in me.   . . . [Love?] dearest!  . . .  . . .   . . . [ns mest terday plot?] If you can send your next to Mr . . . [Thornely Esq?] in Suffield St, Pall Mall East.  He will . . . [pook?] but do not send it by the 2nd.  Just say on the envelope you avail yourself of his kind permission to me to have your letters sent to him.  March 14th Miss . . . [Laurense?] has sent me your letter with which she seems much pleased. Priscilla has been at the point of death, but there is now some hope for her.



3 May 1835.  Extract of a letter from Madame Sismondi to her niece Emma Wedgwood. This is taken from page 267, of Vol 1 of "Emma Darwin, A Century of Family Letters" published 1915.  The letter is dated 3 May 1835.  The extract reads as follows:

I think Anne's Tales particularly interesting; they both robbed me of some of those precious tears I am so chary of shedding.  I prefer the first, there is greater purity and far greater truth.  The Admiral's Daughter is deficient in both these qualities, and interesting as it is, I can hardly forgive its immorality.  Nevertheless I should like to read more by the same author, and shall be sorry if indeed she is, as she now feels, exhausted.



1836, December 22.  Part of a letter from Anne Marsh to Mrs Young confirming that she is in fact the anonymous authoress of "Two old Mens Tales" published in 1834 and "Tales of the Woods & Fields" published in 1836.  Presumably Mrs Young is Mary Young (nee Abbott) who was the wife of George Frederick Young (1791-1870) Shipowner and Merchant of London, M.P. 1832-1838 and 1851-1852.  His father was Vice-Admiral William Young (1761-1847).  This letter is in the British Library (Add 46713 f 90) in the papers of George Frederick Young.  The letter reads as follows:

The Parke B. Heath

Thursday 22 December 1836

Pax! Pax! Pax! My dear Mrs Young, and tell me I am yet in time to disperse the Clouds of your threatened "everlasting displeasure", which I have allowed thus long to collect, but feel sure, if they have not already burst in lucky forgetfulness of my and my sins, through the dissipating nature of Xmas preparations, and Schoolboy's return home.  They will at least dissolve in pity and forgiveness, at the recital of the various excitements and engrossed feelings not sufferings thank God! which the yet more awful storms and visitations of Heaven, have occasioned us for ourselves, and still more for our friends, but let me first bravely face the attack of why and wherefore I never told you Mrs Arthur Marsh was an Authoress simply because I am not an "Old Man" and do not therefore tell "Tales", especially Tales I have been enjoined to keep secret, no matter to me how this same secret becomes known to everyone, and is revealed to me from North, South, East and West, with a similar enquiry to your "Is it true . . . ?" till at length I find it so publicly known, that at least the "Old Man" wears petticoats, when he walks in the "Woods & Fields" that he is at once boldly femininized by his Coat picker W. Quarterly, who nevertheless (I agree with you) gives him due praise, as well as (I hope for the sake of our English nobility) due censure, and I agree with you in hoping the next, if any next there should be, will be "better", though I should say in plot, more than in style, and give the reading world more insight into all the best workings of the human Heart, with less to ponder on, that is evil and miserable.  The Papers seem enough with such thoughts and deeds of real living Men and Women, and I agree with Mrs Trollope, that many a mind gets imbued with ideas of evil, that might never have tainted it, but for the quantity of the sort that it published, and however true of our nature, or well depicted and even morally conducted and concluded, it were better withheld.  The Books in question abound also with body Sentiments of piety and moralities and good feelings, but our fallen nature, is so apt to chide the Evil rather than the Good, that I always wish all Books and Papers recited a preponderance attraction the other way, but dear me, you do not ask my opinion about the Books, but to tell you all I could about the writer, and how shall I answer you?  Unless in her own words that she is neither "particularly this" nor "particularly that", tall and thin and wears spectacles in general.  Do you not chance to remember her, the day you so kindly called on us in Stanhope Place, as you entered our room from a Wedding, in Lavender silk, white B . . . and Plume.  She quitted it, in similar attire, to go to a Wedding Déjeuner.  She certainly is clever in many ways more by her own exertions, than by original education, which in a country place in Staffordshire, and from the fashions, or mode of teaching in her days, was limited, and accomplishments little cultivated, so that she neither sings, plays, draws, or even speaks French well, to be noted for either performance, but having by nature an enquiring mind, and intuitive quickness of observation, and great energy, and having many clever and learned connections, and fond of society, for its own sake, caring nought for the forms of it, she has not only improved herself, but has still more merit, in the unsparing exertions, and their successful result, with which she has entirely conducted the education of six girls, three only are yet grown up to be 18, 16 and 15, and they now assist in teaching the 3 younger.  She also grounded well her only Boy who now comes to School here.  Her profits of her pen have given her elder girls some best Masters for Music etc, and they promise to do well, and all have a natural turn for drawing and languages moreover they all contrive to please and make friends wherever they go by their nice and perfectly artless manners, and altogether are an interesting, happy and attached party, and we, of course, love them all dearly.  My brother you have seen, years ago, he has a plain face but good Head and good Heart, and would not exchange one of his Girls for ten Boys he says, and here ends my history of an "Old Man", or rather "Two Old Men", which may better excuse its length, and are you satisfied?  My next topic must be sincerely to wish you and yours a cheerful Season and many returns of it in health and comfort.  Your five Branches are, I conclude, assembled round you, all well and merry hearted I trust and Mr Young, free enough in mind, as in person, to give you an agreeable daily prospect at dinner time.  My third subject, to thank you equally for not inviting us now, when we must have the pain of saying no, and for so kindly, as we think, asking us to endure your "unfortunate work", in Spring, for "ere" Spring, I fear, I must equally forebear, and endure, from now till May, a much greater endurance than passing a few days with kind friends, no matter where, or what, their abode, unless indeed it was in the frozen ocean.  My trial is, to give up all visits, morning or evening, and even exercise out of doors for a fortnight together, but I am repaid (or I was last year) by averting visits from the Doctor, or being laid up . . .



23 May 1837.  Extract of a letter from Emma Wedgwood to her sister-in-law Mrs Hensleigh Wedgwood. This is taken from page 276, of Vol 1 of "Emma Darwin, A Century of Family Letters" published 1915.  The letter is addressed from Maer and dated 23 May 1837.  The extract reads as follows:

Disputes run very high here upon the subject of Violet [Violet la danseuse, known as a pathetic novel that had a great success].  Some of the party are quite convinced it is written by a women and have some suspicions it is Mrs Marsh.  She acted very well when she was here if it is hers, and did not show the least interest on the subject.  I think it is much too clever for the author of the two last old men [Two Old Men's Tales].




26 October 1837

Letter from Arthur Cuthbert Marsh to Josiah Wedgwood (1769-1843).  The letter seal is a shield with three crowns on the left half and four left facing lions passant on the right half.  The right half also has a large vertical/horizontal cross covering it.  Arthur's address is 11 King's Road, Bedford Row, London.




10 November 1837

Letter from Arthur Cuthbert Marsh to Josiah Wedgwood (1769-1843).  Arthur's letter seal is a man's head wearing a helmet facing left.



16 January 1838.  James Caldwell died at Linley Wood.



Note possibly written by James Caldwell earlier in his life when he thought he was going to die.

To my dear Children

The duration of human life is in every period of it so extremely uncertain that it is very possible I may not be permitted to witness your arrival at an age sufficiently mature to enable you to comprehend the counsel I could wish to impart [‘to you’ crossed out] which [met?] so requisite to the inexperience of youth. I will therefore put down any directions or observations that may accord to my mind [continuing in pencil] which my present age …[rest written in very light pencil. Could be James Caldwell’s writing].


16 January 1838.  Letter from Anne Marsh Caldwell to her Children telling them of the death of their grandfather James Caldwell at Linley Wood.  Addressed to Miss Fanny M Marsh, Maison Bourdon, Rue dd Alger, Capecure, Borlogne Sur Mer.  Postmarked Lawton, London 17 Jan 1838, Paid 17 Jan 1838.

Linley Wood
Tuesday 16 January
My Dearest Loves
Your poor Grandpapa expired at 14 past six this morning.  He had been in the act of dying for nearly 24 hours, the first part of the time he knew us all, gave his directions about morning matters to be done after his death to your Uncle Stamford, enquired for his three sons in law.  Mentioned his grandchildren, recommended family love & union to us all, spoke as a good Christian should upon his past life & his humble hope of a better & in short had prepared himself for this long agony as a wise & good man should.  He has been evidently much employed in self preparation and . . .  prayer for the whole time that I have been here.  His speech forsook him yesterday evening & he then lay quietly breathing until he breathed his last without the faintest struggle, so that I who sat close by his head was in doubt some minutes whether all was over.  I have endeavoured my dearest children not to sit by this long death bed of two weeks without profiting by those serious thoughts which a death bed ought to enforce upon us all & I hope . . . as it is & much as these impressions are weathered by distance that you will all endeavour to lay it to heart & to strengthen your serious thoughts of a death & judgement to come which waits sooner or later for us all & that you will each & every one endeavour to make it a serious means of . . . by reflecting upon those sins to which you are most prone & upon the certainty that those we do not endeavour to . . . while we are strong & young will assuredly grow too strong for us when we are old.  Your grandpapa had many bright & shining virtues extreme parity of conduct to the most perfect & beautiful . . . great integrity just self denial & the most indefatigable industry.  A very strong desire to make his great talents . . . & an abhorrence of  . . .  , all his little imperfections of temper he in the greatest & kindest manner as had forgiveness for even from his very man servant , giving as a beautiful example of that humility of mind, that readiness to acknowledge ourselves in the wrong & that readiness to atone for it which you know I so often recommend as the true basis of the . . . character.  Such a death to be 11 days hourly expecting it, without the hope of escaping must indeed be an awful thing to everyone.  He took evidently great pains to endure the wearying hours with . . . and never to allow the slightest hasty word to escape him amid the many . . . difficulties of his illness, & almost the last word he said was I am afraid I have been impatient.  Your Aunt Betsy & Aunt Roscoe have been unwearied in their attentions they bear up wonderfully but are much fatigued & you may be sure are a good deal . . .  I am writing in my bed.  It is . . . cold . . . lay in plenty of coals lest there should be any difficulty in getting them should this frost continue . . .  . . . to make yourselves warm these grates for the bedrooms if you want them that is of wood fires are not warm enough I think my little ones had better have each of them a Squirrel Muff.  You will get them at about 12? a piece.  You will undoubtedly put your morning in hand get Louise & some other woman if keeping.  There was one at the . . .  I wish you all to go into black . . . [Bombusine?] & Crape.  Make your gowns low as for some time you will wear no other in the evenings & have good warm . . . [pelesines?], lined & wadded would be very well. &ldots; &ldots; &ldots;  You may make long & short sleeves or only long as you like best.  Get black bonnets and Madame Boches.  She will make an assortment if they are all taken together, something quite simple trimmed with creape, . . .  . . . gloves & black calico petticoats will be all you will want with a few broad . . . frills or collars &ldots;  I came.  Get your morning made and arranged in the mode of the place you are at.  Give my old Bombesine to Elizabeth to make her a gown.  She must be in black to walk out with you.  And black ribbons for her bonnet.  Give Katherine & Marie black ribbons & black gloves.  Your kind Aunt she will I am sure give you the benefit of her taste & advice & wish you all to be in . . . morning.  Of course you know my loves we must do this as we do other things as frugally as is consistent with propriety.  I am anxious for another letter from you my next will tell you when I think to be back.  Your Uncle Stamford is as tender & . . . of us as your own Papa could be.  I cannot say more for him can I.  God bless you all my beloved children & I am ever your tender & loving Mother.
Pay for everything as you by it . . . money.  Write to your Papa for more money if you want it.  All the above things will be at my expense dear Louisa & Fanny.  My very king love to Aunt M.



12 April 1838.  Letter written from James Stamford Caldwell to Josiah Wedgwood.  Stamford is executing the will of James Caldwell, who had died three months previously (16 January) leaving a legacy of £5,000 to Anne Marsh.  Wedgwood Archive (28-20694).  The letter reads as follows:

Linley Wood, April 12 1838
My dear Sir
I propose to pay off the £5,000 due on my sister Anne Marsh's Settlement directly.  Pray tell me into what bank you wish it paid.  Dr Holland's - your co-trustee's - Bankers are Messers Drummond - do you wish it to be paid there?  You will have to execute a regular release to me which shall be got ready for your signature very soon.
I am my dear Sir
faithfully yours
J Stamford Caldwell.

[The letter is addressed on the outside to Josiah Wedgwood Esq, Maer Hall, Newcastle-under-Lyme.  Josiah has noted a copy of his reply on the same sheet of paper.  This reads as follows:]

I have written to Mr Marsh on the subject of your letter of . . . in our need yesterday.  I have no objection to the money being paid in at Drummonds.  I have no copy of the settlement and it will be required that the Release should be paid on my behalf.  It will probably save time if you send the Draft to Mr Marsh as I have proposed Mr Delmer who is intimately acquainted with the settlement should procure the Release for the Trustee's.




27 April 1838.  Letter from Arthur Cuthbert Marsh to Josiah Wedgwood (1769-1843).  Arthur notes that he has just come back from Boulogne. 



1 August 1838.  Letter from Anne Marsh (later Anne Marsh Caldwell) to her brother James Stamford Caldwell.  Postmarked 2 August 1838 Boulogne Sur Mer and 3 August 1838 London.  Addressed to J Stamford Caldwell Esq, Linley Wood, Lawton, Cheshire.

Chez le Baron des Lyons
Chataue des Tris
Boulogne Sur Mer [France]
Wednesday August 1st [1838]
My dearest Stamford
I have been almost as lazy as you are in acknowledging your letter, and I am sure if you like a letter from me, with a thousand times more reason do I enjoy and value a letter from you and how you can possibly think your "bubbling of green trees" can be uninteresting I cannot claim to know how you are passing away your time at the dear old place & what you are occupied upon is to me the most interesting of topics.  What passes within as well as without, indeed I cling to you and Eliza & dearest Aunt B with a love which makes every stroke of a pen from you precious.  I am very sorry that I shall not get to you this year, but if Mahomet will come to the mountain, it certainly will be a far better thing and Mahomet might have, a little music and chat here, and then he might run on to Paris and first spend a fortnight or so in looking at what has been done since he was there last visiting the theatres etc.  He shall be made a comfortable as we can here, though the handsome bedrooms of the last house have been exchanged for very small ones in this, our guestroom however can be made comfortable for one.  And most glad shall we be to see it so occupied.  I am intending to go a little tour into Flanders next week with Arthur and Georgy to see what that will do for me, for I cannot get rid of a many disagreeable little ailments that keep me very weak and good for nothing such as bad nights etc.  As for the . . . [blank?] day he has taken his . . . [deporteme?] for the present we feel settled here enjoying the garden and little wood & pretty view very much.  The house is very handsome in the . . . [extreme?]  though it . . . [continued?] within and indeed is one of the best in the place but from . . . [storely?] a little distant from the Guarde Rue is let cheaper than its other merits deserve which bought it within my powers.  Houses are very dear here, and the markets are dear too for even to lettuces & green . . . [prease?] everything goes to England, yet in spite of this the sum total is nearly one third less, to be sure.  We do not see quite so many friends here as we did at my lamented Waterloo.  The facilities for Masters here are delightful.  I have as I write, Martin occupied with a very clever young man who for three franks a day will give him a lesson in Latin comprehension and mathematics, both of which he was anxious to get a little more careful instruction in than he can obtain in a large class at school.  He is grown, & looks big & ugly, which I read strong and hearty.  We think he must however be off soon either to Eton or Harrow.  We think the first as he wants desirable compromises at his present school.  I hope Fanny will be able to accept your kind invitation.  I should be very sorry she came back without having a peep at you & our beloved Aunt B.  I hope you will think her improved in health & good looks.  They all thrive very well in our present house and are certainly better than at the old place which is a great consolation.  I find it difficult to get books here.  I have however had the first two vols of Wilberforce's Life [William Wilberforce 1759-1833] which interested me deeply.  There is something in that particular form of religion which I have always found it difficult to sympathise with before, but it is impossible to refine ones sympathy to this most excellent being, and I feel but as if no one had done their duty by their own character who did not read this book.  I am sure it has acted as a fillup to me, for I could not help contrasting his well filled hours with the numbers I . . . [habe?] wasted.  The character of Pitt too as it appears on various passages and letters has something quite sublime in it, a grand dark indistinct shadow, but which appears to have justified my father's enthusiasm, to be sure Willberforce & he were affectionate friends, but Wilberforce was not a man I should think to be deceived and he would not have continued to love Pitt long if he had not believed in his candour sincerity & honesty in which he says he . . . [exceeded?] any public man it had been his fortune to meet with.  I have gone through the two imposing volumes dedicated to that most ordinary & extraordinary person Sir William . . . [Kingston?], his family have been so . . . [corhois?] that little is to be learned, except glances at the character of George the 4th who certainly appears in ability to have far exceeded his brothers, but in sensibility to have far exceeded the usual sons of kings, but . . . [saring?] his letters the letters of our Princes speak little for their education or . . . [orants, such?] compositions.  However I suppose they like the rest of the world have learnt the . . . [inestrable?] value of education and like the rest of the world are making all of all the advantages they enjoy for forwarding their children.  On looking back at the date of your letter I am surprised & . . . [aggrieved?] to see the 26th June, do not pray let it be so long before you write again and I hope my loved Aunt B has a letter already on the start.  I must end in haste not to lose another post.  Mr & Mrs Gabion, Anne Marsh that was, [Arthur Marsh's sister] have just been spending a week with us, & was more pleased with him than ever.  He is a very amiable sensible and agreeable man & we are just now to dress for the play, to see . . . [Mod Diatic Darnoreain?] in the . . . [Ambopadicea?].  She gave a concert on Monday & I was enchanted with her singing.  We . . . [iibruse?] some excellent flute playing.  I sent Aunt B a little box of lozenges for her cough which I hope she got.  It relieved me so much I wished her to try it.  I conclude in great haste dearest Stamford ever you tenderly affectionate sister Anne M.
Love to our dear Aunt B.  Do write soon if you can spare time?




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